Creating eyes the caricature way involves a lesson in anatomy. However grotesque a caricature may appear, you will notice the stringent detail that caricaturists often put into the faces and bodies of their subjects. They do not look stiff and awkward which is why studying the human body and its particular parts and movements is highly important in drawing people.
Here is a short informative piece on how to draw caricature eyes.
First we have to know what parts compose the external eye. The auxiliary parts of the eye have four main components. They include the eye muscles, the eyelid, eyelash and the orbit.
The eye has six extraocular muscles connected to the sclera of every eye. These muscles work in conjunction so that the eye can shift and budge at the same time and see the same object.
The eyelid is composed of a slim layer of skin on the external surface and a damp conjunctiva fixed on the internal surface. The eyelid’s purpose is to protect the surface of the eyes. It also helps in making the eyes damp so the eyes will be clean each time.
The eyelashes work together with the eyelids to offer extra protection. They help to filter out any foreign matter that comes to the eye like debris and dust, and prevents them from reaching the surface.
The eyeball meanwhile is located in the middle of the orbit, padded by fat. The orbit is composed of sacks of tissue and the walls are made by seven facial bones. As mentioned, the orbit houses the eyeball and the eyeball is surrounded by fats, blood vessels, muscles, nerves and the lacrimal system, also known as the tear drainage system.
Lastly, the optic nerve goes out through the orbit’s back and sends visual data to the person’s brain.
The auxiliary parts of the eye are crucial in portraying the eye. But in order to fully capture a subject’s eyes, you have to first contend with the eye shape.
By shape, we mean the most obvious parts of the eyeball. Also keep in mind that the human eye is not flat, but rather it overhangs a little from the person’s face and the lids include a substantial thickness.
When it comes to exaggerations, the artist should draw with the entirety of the subject in mind. The exaggeration that happens in caricatures comes down to the connection between the subject’s overall features. These features should not be treated as individual entities.
The eyes’ angle is the simplest part to overstate. If, for example, the corners of the eye are raised higher than the inner corners, then all you have to do is make them higher. As soon as you have made that particular observation, creating the needed exaggerations will be as easy as pie.
Now here is the challenging part; overstressing the eye shape. While it is simple to find the middle ground in terms of likeness, if the whole thing is drawn right, it will improve the resemblance of the caricature. This is because the features’ shapes are also depicting the subject’s expression.
As you have probably known by now, exaggerating the expression is key to a great caricature. For example, if the subject’s eye becomes wide when excited, drawing them even wider will exaggerate their expression.
Expression is the nature of an individual and catching the subject’s natural disposition is the crucial goal in creating a good caricature. If the subject has droopy eyelids, you can make it droopier.
If the eyes are squinty, then make them even more squinty. However, they must still appear like the eyes you are working on, but you can lay it on thick. Exaggerate as long as you will not lose the likeness of the subject.
Artists can also exaggerate the shape of the eye and its appearance by highlighting the whites which surround the iris and pupil plus the circular properties of the lower eye.
Now that we have provided some key points in drawing caricature eyes, you can now do the rest. Remember, the point here is to exaggerate but still stay loyal to the likeness of the subject.
For more tips on drawing caricatures, you can visit Learn-to-Draw.org. The site features more tips on mastering the craft along with other helpful suggestions on how to make it as a great caricaturist.